Understanding and Setting Up Magento Development Environment

Getting VirtualBox

VirtualBox is open source, and it is supported across all platforms. It can be
downloaded directly from www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads.
Now, we will proceed to setting up a Linux virtual machine. We have selected
Ubuntu Server 12.04.2 LTS for its ease of use and widely available support. First,
download the ISO file from www.ubuntu.com/download/server; both 64-bit and
32-bit versions will work.

To create a new Linux virtual machine, perform the following steps:
1. Start VirtualBox Manager and click on the New button in the upper-left corner, as shown in the following screenshot:

2. A wizard dialog will pop up and will guide us through the steps for creating
a bare virtual machine. The wizard will ask us for the basic information for
setting up the virtual machine:
*  VM Name: How shall we name our virtual machine? Let’s name it
Magento_dev 01.
*  Memory: This is the value of system memory that will be assigned
to the guest operating system when our VM starts; for running a full
LAMP server, 1 GB or more is recommended.

°° Operating System Type: This is the type of OS that we will be
installing later; in our case, we want to select Linux/Ubuntu, and
depending on our selection, VirtualBox will enable or disable certain
VM options.
3. Next, we need to specify a virtual hard disk. Select Create a virtual hard
drive now, as shown in the following screenshot:


4. There are many hard disk options available, but for most purposes, selecting
VirtualBox Disk Image (VDI) will suffice. This will create a single file on our
host operating system.
5. We now need to select the type of storage on the physical drive. We are
provided with the following two options:
°° Dynamically Allocated: The disk image will grow automatically as
the number of files and usage on our guest operating system grows
°° Fixed Size: This option will limit the size of the virtual disk from
the start
6. Next, we will need to specify the size of our virtual hard disk. We want
to adjust the size depending on how many Magento installations we
plan to use.

The newly created box will appear on the left-hand side navigation menu,
but before starting our recently created VM, we need to make some changes,
as follows:
i. Select our newly created VM and click on the Settings button at
the top.
ii. Open the Network menu and select Adapter 2. We will set
Attached to to Bridged Adapter as we want to set this up as a
bridged adapter to our main network

iii. Go to the System menu and change the boot order so that the
CD/DVD-ROM boots first.
iv. On the Storage menu, select one of the empty IDE controllers and
mount our previously downloaded Ubuntu ISO image.

Booting our virtual machine

At this point, we have successfully installed and configured our VirtualBox instance,
and we are now ready to boot our new virtual machine for the first time. To do this,
just select the VM in the left sidebar and click on the Start button at the top.
A new window will pop up with an interface to the VM. Ubuntu will take a few
minutes to boot up.

Once Ubuntu has finished booting up, we will see two menus. The first menu
will allow us to select the language, and the second one is the main menu, which
provides several options. In our case, we just want to proceed with the Install Ubuntu Server option.

We should now see the Ubuntu installation wizard, which will ask for our language
and keyboard settings; after selecting the appropriate settings for our country and
language, the installer will proceed to load all the necessary packages in memory.
This can take up a few minutes.
Ubuntu will proceed to configure our main network adapter, and once the automatic
configuration is done, we will be asked to set up the hostname for the virtual
machine. We can leave the hostname to default settings.

The next screen will request us to enter the full name of our user; for this example,
let’s use Magento Developer:

Next, we will be asked to create a username and password. Let’s use magedev as
our username:

And let’s use magento2013 as our password:

On the next screens, we will be asked to confirm our password and set up the
correct time zone; after entering the right values, the installation wizard will
show the following screen asking about our partition settings:


In our case, we select Guided – use entire disk and set up LVM; let’s now confirm
that we are partitioning our virtual disk:

We will be asked to confirm our changes a final time; select Finish partitioning and
write changes to disk,

The installation wizard will ask us to select predefined packages to install; one of the
options available is LAMP server.
Although this is highly convenient, we don’t want to install the LAMP server that
comes pre-packaged with our Ubuntu CD; we will be installing all the LAMP
components manually to guarantee that they are set up according to specific needs
and are up to date with the latest patches.
Next, for this, we will need an SSH server; select OpenSSH server from the list and
click on Continue:

Now, installation of Ubuntu is complete and it will reboot into our newly installed
virtual box.
We are almost ready to proceed with the installation of the rest of our environment,
but first we need to update our package manager repository definitions, log in to the
console and run the following command:
$ sudo apt-get update
APT stands for Advanced Packaging Tool and is one of the core libraries included
with most Debian GNU/Linux distributions; apt greatly simplifies the process of
installing and maintaining software on our systems.
Once apt-get has finished updating all the repository sources, we can proceed with
the installation of the other components of our LAMP server.

Installing Apache2

Apache is an HTTP server. Currently, it is used to host over 60 percent of the
websites on the Web and is the accepted standard for running Magento stores.
There are many guides and tutorials available online for fine-tuning and tweaking
Apache2 for increasing Magento performance.
Installing Apache is as simple as running the following command:
$ sudo apt-get install apache2 -y
This will take care of installing Apache2 and all the required dependencies for us. If
everything has been installed correctly, we can now test by opening our browser and
Apache by default runs as a service and can be controlled with the following commands:
$ sudo apache2ctl stop
$ sudo apache2ctl start
$ sudo apache2ctl restart
You should now see Apache’s default web page with the message It Works!.

Installing PHP

PHP is a server-side scripting language and stands for PHP Hypertext Processor.
Magento is implemented on PHP5 and Zend Framework, and we would need to
install PHP and some additional libraries in order to run it.
Let’s use apt-get again and run the following commands to get php5 and all the
necessary libraries installed:
$ sudo apt-get install php5 php5-curl php5-gd php5-imagick php5-imap
php5-mcrypt php5-mysql -y
$ sudo apt-get install php-pear php5-memcache -y
$ sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php5 -y
The first command installed, not only php5, but also additional packages required by
Magento to connect with our database and manipulate images.

Installing MySQL

MySQL is a popular choice of database for many web applications, and Magento is
no exception. We will need to install and set up MySQL as part of development stack
using the following command:
$ sudo apt-get install mysql-server mysql-client -y
During installation, we will be asked to enter a root password; use magento2013.
Once the installer has finished, we should have a mysql service instance running
in the background. We can test it by trying to connect to the mysql server using the
following command:
$ sudo mysql -uroot -pmagento2013
If everything has been installed correctly, we should see the following mysql
server prompt:
At this point, we have a fully functional LAMP environment that can be used not
only for developing and working on Magento websites but also for any other kind
of PHP development.

Putting everything together

At this point, we have a basic LAMP set up and running. However, for working with
Magento, we would need to do some configuration changes and additional setup.
The first thing that we will need to do is to create a location to store our development
site’s files, so we will run the following commands:
$ sudo mkdir -p /srv/www/magento_dev/public_html/
$ sudo mkdir /srv/www/magento_dev/logs/
$ sudo mkdir /srv/www/magento_dev/ssl/
This will create the necessary folder structure for our first Magento site. Now
we need to check out the latest version of Magento. We can quickly get the files
by using SVN.
We would first need to install SVN on our server with the following command:
$ sudo apt-get install subversion -y
Once the installer has finished, open the magento_dev directory and run the svn
command to get the latest version files:
$ cd /srv/www/magento_dev
$ sudo svn export –force http://svn.magentocommerce.com/source/
branches/1.7 public_html/
We will also need to fix some of the permissions on our new Magento copy:
$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data public_html/
$ sudo chmod -R 755 public_html/var/
$ sudo chmod -R 755 public_html/media/
$ sudo chmod -R 755 public_html/app/etc/
Next, we need to create a new database for our Magento installation. Let’s open our
mysql shell:
$ sudo mysql -uroot -pmagento2013
Once in the mysql shell, we can use the create command, which should be followed
by the type of entity (database, table) we want to create and the database name to
create a new database:
mysql> create database magento_dev;

Although we could use the root credentials for accessing our development database,
this is not a recommended practice to follow because it could compromise not only a
single site but also the full database server. MySQL accounts are restricted based on
privileges. We want to create a new set of credentials that has limited privileges to
only our working database:
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON magento_dev.* TO ‘mage’@’localhost’
IDENTIFIED BY ‘dev2013$#’;
Now, we need to properly set up Apache2 and enable some additional modules;
fortunately, this version of Apache comes with a set of useful commands:
• a2ensite: This creates symlinks between the vhost files in the
sites-available and the sites-enabled folders to allow the
Apache Server to read those files.
• a2dissite: This removes the symlinks created by the a2ensite command.
This effectively disables the site.
• a2enmod: This is used to create symlinks between the mods-enabled
directory and the module configuration files.
• a2dismod: This will remove the symlinks from mods-enabled directory. This
command will prevent the module from being loaded by Apache.
Magento uses the mod_rewrite module for generating the URLs. mod_rewrite uses
a rule-based rewriting engine to rewrite request URLs on the fly.
We can enable mod_rewrite with the a2enmod command:
$ sudo a2enmod rewrite
The next step will require that we create a new virtual host file under the
sites-available directory:
$ sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/magento.localhost.com
The nano command will open a shell text editor where we can set up the
configuration for our virtual domain:
<VirtualHost *:80>
ServerAdmin magento@locahost.com
ServerName magento.localhost.com
DocumentRoot /srv/www/magento_dev/public_html
<Directory /srv/www/magento_dev/public_html/>
Options Indexes FollowSymlinks MultiViews
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny

allow from all
ErrorLog /srv/www/magento_dev/logs/error.log
LogLevel warn
To save the new virtual host file, press Ctrl + O and then Ctrl + X. The virtual host
file will tell Apache where it can find the site files and what permissions to give
them. In order for the new configuration changes to take effect, we need to enable
the new site and restart Apache. We can use the following commands to do so:
$ sudo a2ensite magento.localhost.com
$ sudo apache2ctl restart
We are nearly ready to install Magento. We just need to set up a local mapping into
our host system host file by using any of the following:
• Windows
i. Open C:\system32\drivers\etc\hosts in notepad
ii. Add the following line at the end of the file: magento.localhost.com
• Unix/Linux/OSX
i. Open /etc/hosts using nano:
$ sudo nano /etc/hosts
ii. Add the following line at the end of the file: magento.localhost.com


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